Francis turbines


A Francis turbine is a spiral pipe swirling the water before it is guided through a stationary guiding wheel with adjustable blades to reach the opposed curved impellers.

Wikipedia definition:

The Francis turbine is a type of water turbine that was developed by James B. Francis in Lowell, Massachusetts. It is an inward-flow reaction turbine that combines radial and axial flow concepts. Francis turbines are the most common water turbine in use today. They operate in a water head from 40 to 600 m (130 to 2,000 ft) and are primarily used for electrical power production. The electric generators which most often use this type of turbine have a power output which generally ranges just a few kilowatts up to 800 MW, though mini-hydro installations may be lower. Penstock (input pipes) diameters are between 3 and 33 feet (0.91 and 10.06 metres). The speed range of the turbine is from 75 to 1000 rpm. Wicket gates around the outside of the turbine's rotating runner control the rate of water flow through the turbine for different power production rates. Francis turbines are almost always mounted with the shaft vertical to isolate water from the generator. This also facilitates installation and maintenance.

Source: Wikipedia - Francis turbine