A mathematical presentation of climate based on physical, chemical, and biological properties.
Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the important drivers of climate, including atmosphere, oceans, land surface and ice. They are used for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the climate system to projections of future climate. All climate models take account of incoming energy from the sun as short wave electromagnetic radiation, chiefly visible and short-wave (near) infrared, as well as outgoing long wave (far) infrared electromagnetic. Any imbalance results in a change in temperature. Models vary in complexity: * A simple radiant heat transfer model treats the earth as a single point and averages outgoing energy * This can be expanded vertically (radiative-convective models) and/or horizontally * Finally, (coupled) atmosphere–ocean–sea ice global climate models solve the full equations for mass and energy transfer and radiant exchange. * Box models can treat flows across and within ocean basins. * Other types of modelling can be interlinked, such as land use, allowing researchers to predict the interaction between climate and ecosystems.
Source: Wikipedia - Climate model