A transformer consists of a primary- and secondary coil, coupled by a magnetic field. The primary coil induces the voltage in the secondary coil. The voltage transformation depends on the number of windings.
A current transformer (CT) is a transformer that is used to produce an alternating current (AC) in its secondary which is proportional to the AC current in its primary. Current transformers, together with voltage transformers (VTs) or potential transformers (PTs), which are designed for measurement, are known as instrument transformers. When a current is too high to measure directly or the voltage of the circuit is too high, a current transformer can be used to provide an isolated lower current in its secondary which is proportional to the current in the primary circuit. The induced secondary current is then suitable for measuring instruments or processing in electronic equipment. Current transformers also have little effect on the primary circuit. Often, in electronic equipment, the isolation between the primary and secondary circuit is the important characteristic. Current transformers are used in electronic equipment and are widely used for metering and protective relays in the electrical power industry.
Source: Wikipedia - Current transformer