synthesis gas


Syngas is a fuel produced through thermochemical conversion of wood and other biomass. It is a rather weak gas but this technology is still improving.

Wikipedia definition:

Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide. The name comes from its use as intermediates in creating synthetic natural gas (SNG) and for producing ammonia or methanol. Syngas is usually a product of gasification and the main application is electricity generation. Syngas is combustible and often used as a fuel of internal combustion engines. It has less than half the energy density of natural gas. Syngas can be produced from many sources, including natural gas, coal, biomass, or virtually any hydrocarbon feedstock, by reaction with steam (steam reforming), carbon dioxide (dry reforming) or oxygen (partial oxidation). Syngas is a crucial intermediate resource for production of hydrogen, ammonia, methanol, and synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Syngas is also used as an intermediate in producing synthetic petroleum for use as a fuel or lubricant via the Fischer–Tropsch process and previously the Mobil methanol to gasoline process. Production methods include steam reforming of natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen, the gasification of coal, biomass, and in some types of waste-to-energy gasification facilities.

Source: Wikipedia - Syngas

Wikipedia definition (similar term):

Syngas fermentation, also known as synthesis gas fermentation, is a microbial process. In this process, a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, known as syngas, is used as carbon and energy sources, and then converted into fuel and chemicals by microorganisms. The main products of syngas fermentation include ethanol, butanol, acetic acid, butyric acid, and methane.Certain industrial processes, such as petroleum refining, steel milling, and methods for producing carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol, discharge enormous amounts of waste gases containing mainly CO and H2 into the atmosphere either directly or through combustion. Biocatalysts can be exploited to convert these waste gases to chemicals and fuels as, for example, ethanol. There are several microorganisms, which can produce fuels and chemicals by syngas utilization. These microorganisms are mostly known as acetogens including Clostridium ljungdahlii, Clostridium autoethanogenum, Eurobacterium limosum, Clostridium carboxidivorans P7, Peptostreptococcus products, and Butyribacterium methylotrophicum.Most use the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway. Syngas fermentation process has advantages over a chemical process since it takes places at lower temperature and pressure, has higher reaction specificity, tolerates higher amounts of sulfur compounds, and does not require a specific ratio of CO to H2. On the other hand, syngas fermentation has limitations such as: * Gas-liquid mass transfer limitation * Low volumetric productivity * Inhibition of organisms.

Source: Wikipedia - Syngas fermentation