Haiti (2012)

Degree of reliance on imported energy: 

<p>
80% of energy consumption is supplied by local resources, 20% is imported through conventional energy sources. This 20% includes derivatives of petroleum such as gasoline, gasoil, liquefied petroleum gas and kerosene.</p>

Main sources of Energy: 

<p>
Total installed electricity capacity (2010): 155 MW<br />
Thermal: 72.5%<br />
Hydro-electricity: 27.55%.<br />
Wood is the principal energy source for the majority of Haitians.</p>

Country: 

Haiti

Extent of the network: 

<p>
National electrification rate (2010): 12%<br />
<br />
Electricity is unevenly distributed among the population.</p>

Capacity concerns: 

<p>
Haiti suffers from a general lack of investment in the energy infrastructure, caused in part by the fact that prices are artificially held below the true cost of production and delivery. Power supply is generally inefficient and unreliable. The rate of technical and non-technical losses from the power network is very high, estimated at above 55%.<br />
<br />
The total electricity demand has been estimated at 550 MW, far above the 155 MW installed capacity.<br />
<br />
There is a broad use of stand-alone diesel generators.</p>

Potential for Renewable Energy: 

<p>
Biomass is being promoted by the government and is most used for cooking. Small-scale solar usage is picking up in schools<br />
<br />
Wind is the most promising renewable resource for Haiti. A Study of wind at three sites was conducted with good results. Haiti also has untapped resources of at least 50 MW in potential small hydro projects.&nbsp; Solar PV potential is estimated at 1,654 MW of installed capacity, but bulk power development would not be economic based on current estimates.</p>

Potential for Energy Efficiency: 

<p>
N/A</p>

Ownership: 

<p>
State owned corporation <i><b>Electricity of Haiti (EdH)</b></i> is the country&rsquo;s utility company primarily responsible for the electric power generation, transmission, and retail distribution.<br />
<br />
Independent Power Producers provide part of generation capacity and sell their electricity to EdH.</p>

Structure / extent of competition: 

<p>
No reforms have been implemented to introduce competition in the electricity sector.<br />
<br />
EdH is unable to cover its operating expenses due to inefficiency and heavy subsidisation of energy consumption. Energy subsidies from the Haitian state are equivalent to around 1% of the country&rsquo;s GDP.</p>

Existence of an energy framework and programmes to promote sustainable energy: 

<p>
Regulatory reforms to the energy sector have not progressed as intended due to political factors and the impact and aftermath of the devastating earthquake.</p>

Current energy debates or legislation: 

<p>
N/A</p>

Major energy studies: 

<p>
N/A</p>

Role of government: 

<p>
The<i><b> Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Telecommunications</b></i> is the lead government agency in much of the energy sector activity.<br />
<br />
The <i><b>Bureau of Mines and Energy (BME)</b></i> is an independent agency created in 1986 operating under supervision of the Minister of Public Works, Transportation and Telecommunications. Its main mission is to promote research and exploitation of mineral and energy resources of Haiti.<br />
<br />
The <i><b>Ministry of Environment</b></i> is responsible for promotion of sustainable energy and environmental protection.</p>

Government agencies in sustainable energy: 

<p>
N/A</p>

Energy planning procedures: 

<p>
Draft Energy Policy for the Republic of Haiti.</p>

Energy regulator Date of creation: 

<p>
There is no energy regulator in Haiti.</p>

Degree of independence: 

<p>
N/A</p>

Regulatory framework for sustainable energy: 

<p>
N/A</p>

Regulatory roles: 

<p>
Tariffs are determined in cooperation with the Prime Minister&rsquo;s office.</p>

Role of government department in energy regulation: 

<p>
N/A</p>

Regulatory barriers: 

<p>
N/A</p>

References: 

Nexant, for the World Bank. Caribbean Regional Electricity Generation, Interconnection and Fuels Supply Strategy. Final Report March 2010. Available at: <a href="http://www.caricom.org/jsp/community_organs/energy_programme/electricity... [Accessed 18th September 2013]<br />
<br />
Bureau des Mines et de l&rsquo;Energie d&rsquo;Haiti (BME). <a href="http://www.bme.gouv.ht/carte/index.html">http://www.bme.gouv.ht/carte/in... 18th September 2013]