Independent State of Samoa (2012)

Degree of reliance on imported energy: 

<p>
Samoa is heavily reliant on imported energy. The country has undergone a rapid transformation over the last decade towards an energy supply based on imported petroleum and hydropower-generated electricity. This transformation has been driven by economic growth that has resulted in an increasing demand for electricity.<br />
<br />
Power generation accounts for 20% of imported fossil fuels. Total fuel imports show an increase of 3.7% from 88.2 million litres in 2009 to 91.5 million litres in 2010. Samoa re-exports the imported fuels mainly to Tokelau; and the re-export sales recorded 0.94 million litres in 2010.</p>

Main sources of Energy: 

<p>
Total installed electricity capacity (2007): 42 MW<br />
<br />
Total primary energy supply (2007): 75.6 ktoe<br />
Biomass: 65%<br />
Petroleum/Electricity: 35%<br />
<br />
Renewable energy that are currently utilised in Samoa include biomass, biofuel, solar and hydro-power. Biomass use in Samoa consists of firewood, coconut shells and husks which are mainly utilised in domestic cooking. Solar technology use mainly consists of Solar Photovoltaics and Solar Hot Water Systems. Hydro-power over the past 2 decades has been used extensively in Samoa and currently supplies around 36% of electricity to the main grid in Upolu.<br />
<br />
Total RE consumption in 2010 was estimated at 44.74 ktoe. Of this, biomass accounted 41.11 ktoe, hydro 3.43 ktoe, biofuel 0.14 ktoe, and the remaining 0.06 ktoe to solar energy. Biomass consumption recorded a decrease in the commercial and manufacturing sectors while the residential sector recorded an increase in consumption. Solar energy technology contributes to a minute portion of the national consumption accounting for 0.13% of total renewable energy produced in 2009. Based on accumulated systems in the country, it was estimated that power generated form solar energy grew by 2% in 2008 compared to 2007. Energy consumption from hydro power remained the same from 2007, and stood at 3.8 ktoe in 2009.<br />
<br />
Gross electricity generation in 2010 amounted to 110.5 GWh, which records a decrease in generation by 8.3% from 2009 (120.5 GWh).<br />
Electricity generation (2010)<br />
Diesel: 63.6%<br />
Hydro: 35.9%<br />
Coconut oil biofuel: 0.6%<br />
Solar: 0.01%<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Country: 

Samoa

Extent of the network: 

<p>
According to the Strategy for the Development of Samoa 2008-2012, the population&rsquo;s access to electricity is highest in the Pacific at 98% in 2001. The 2001 Population Census identified that 93% of all households used electricity for lighting, compared to only 38% in 1981. Since then, rural populations not connected to the grid have been supplied with electricity from renewable sources: solar power was launched in early February 2007 to meet the electricity needs of residents of Apolima Island. This illustrates the increasing coverage and demand for electricity against traditional sources. The EPC, the national utility, seeks alternative energy to electrify the remaining residents who are not connected to the grid.<br />
<br />
EPC&rsquo;s power system comprises of a grid each on the Upolu and Savai&rsquo;i islands, which together account for nearly all energy sales, and small stand-alone solar and diesel generation schemes on two isolated islands. The total installed capacity of EPC is 37.2 MW, including 24.7 MW of diesel generation. However, available and firm capacity is significantly less.</p>

Capacity concerns: 

<p>
Currently Samoa generates up to 50% of its electricity from hydro power plants, but the reliability of this energy source is being increasingly compromised by prolonged droughts. Diesel generators operate in Upolu and Savai&rsquo;i, and 8 hydropower plants operate in Upolu.&nbsp;&nbsp; However, existing capacity falls short of peak demand requirements in Upolu, with consequent blackouts, while weak transmission and distribution systems result in 15-20% line losses, causing brownouts and power surges that damage equipment. Hotel operators, manufacturers and other commercial users have been compelled to operate their own backup generators, and thereby have added an estimated 26% to capacity. In late September 2009, an earthquake and the resulting tsunami severely damaged Samoa, destroyed transmission and power generation.<br />
<br />
Hydro produced 35.9% of total generation in 2010 due to low rainfall and this shows a decrease of 10.8% from 44.2 GWh in 2009 to 39.9 GWh in 2010.The rainfall recorded in Apia for the first five months (January to May) of 2010 was below the long-term average (1971-2000) due to the persistence of El Nino event in the equatorial Pacific, which are usually associated with dry conditions across the central and eastern Pacific including Samoa region.</p>

Potential for Renewable Energy: 

<p>
Growth in Renewable share is expected to increase from 2012 with the introduction of the 400 KW Solar grid system and the 500 kW biomass gasification unit. The most promising sources of larger scale power generation are small run-of-river hydropower, wind energy, and biofuels. There are, however, many challenges including a lack of data on renewable energy potential, land tenure agreements, and the often higher equipment capital costs.&nbsp;<br />
<br />
<b>Hydropower</b><br />
There is significant potential for small-scale hydropower around many Samoan river systems, however the development of hydro power is constrained by land access issues. Over the years, rivers identified as having hydro potential on Savai&rsquo;i are Vailoa, Lata, Vaita&rsquo;i and Sili; while on Upolu are Namo, Lotofaga, Tafitoala and Faleseela. Savai&#39;i hydropower capacity (10 megawatts [MW] in stages of 4 MW, 2 MW, and 2 MW by the year 2013) is capable of providing ample electricity (with a current peak demand of approximately 3MW) for more than 8 years. Potential sites on Upolu have been identified, and should boost hydro capacity by more than 45%, over a period of almost 20 years.&nbsp;<br />
<br />
The EPC is currently implementing the Hydro Monitoring and Data Collection Programme, in collaboration with the Water Resource Division (WRD) of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MNRE) with the financial support from ADB and SPREP&rsquo;s Pacific Islands Greenhouse Gas Abatement through Renewable Energy Project (PIGGAREP). Six sites have been identified and feasibility studies are being carried out for some of the sites. The information from this will assist the EPC with decisions on hydro schemes.&nbsp;<br />
<b>&nbsp;<br />
Geothermal energy</b><br />
Located in one of the world&#39;s most volcanically-active regions, total geothermal potential in Samoa is estimated at 4MW, significantly more than current peak demand. However, current development of is slow as capital investments for geothermal projects are high, and a more detailed resource assessment is still required.<br />
<br />
<b>Biomass Energy / Biofuels</b><br />
An increased use of biomass is having significant environmental impacts. Estimates of Samoa&rsquo;s total forest cover, mainly humid tropical rainforests with 75% on Savai&rsquo;i, range from about 35% to 45% but data collection has been poor. Recent work suggests that the lower estimates are more accurate. Most commercial forest has been cleared for timber or agriculture or damaged by cyclones, with over 80% of forest non-commercial. There are four saw milling companies, all in Savai&rsquo;i. Logging has declined from a recent peak of 16,000 m3 to 9000 m3 in 2003. As a rule of thumb, for 9000 m3 logs cut, 4500 m3 are extracted producing about 2500 m3 of waste. In 2001 it was estimated that extraction would be total in two to five years at current logging rates. Commercial logging will thus soon cease due to overexploitation but new plantation resources will not be ready for harvesting as sawlogs for a decade, limiting the practical potential of energy from woody biomass waste.<br />
<br />
There are about 22,000 hectares of land under coconut, many trees damaged by hurricanes but most within their economic bearing age. Coconut oil or its esters can be used as a biofuel to substitute for distillate. In the late 1990s, Samoa exported sufficient copra (4800 tonne) and coconut oil 3900 tonnes) to produce the equivalent in energy terms of nine million litres of distillate.<br />
<br />
The Electric Power Corporation (EPC) is pursuing the possibility of installing biomass gasifier generators, which use residues and wastes from coconut farming. An anaerobic digester installed at Tafaigata Landfill was proposed to test the feasibility of using methane from landfill to generate electricity; to self sustain the operation and also to feed into the national grid if there is excess. Thus far, the results are not as promising as expected, and the project is yet to be justified. Small-scale biogas digesters for home use have also been proposed, with reference to the high proportion of livestock ownership amongst the populace.<br />
<br />
<b>Wind energy</b><br />
With support from UNDP, the Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) and the UN Risoe National Laboratory, the EPC, in collaboration with the MNRE and the Ministry of Finance&#39;s Energy Unit, continue to implement the Upolu and Savaii Wind Energy Assessment Project.<br />
<br />
Two wind monitoring masts were installed at Satitoa Aleipata and Afulilo, to collect wind data. The Savaii Wind Resource Assessment, an extension of the Upolu project will see the installation of wind monitoring stations at two locations in Savaii.<br />
<br />
<b>Solar energy</b><br />
Most parts of Samoa probably receive a daily average of over 5.0 kWh/m&sup2; with relatively small seasonal variation, sufficient for water heating and household electricity generation. A solar PV power system was installed on Apolima Island in Samoa in 2006. Samoa has a PV Rural Electrification Programme in progress aiming at providing electricity to non-electrified households.<br />
<br />
<b>Ocean energy </b><br />
There is very little knowledge of Samoa&rsquo;s ocean based energy potential, whether ocean temperature gradients, tidal or wave. In the early 1990s Norwegians mapped the wave resource through data buoys moored off Upolu and other islands. In the open sea, annual mean wave power levels were 20-25 kW/m but only 16 kW/m on the coast, which is of more practical significance. Estimates based on satellite measurements suggest the northern shores average 8-9 kW/m.</p>

Potential for Energy Efficiency: 

<p>
Total electricity consumption dropped by 12.9% between 2007 and 2008, and decreased at an annual average growth rate 3.4% per annum between 2008 and 2009. Electricity consumption excluding the prepayment meter customers accounted for 61.5 GWh in 2010 recording a decrease of 12.0% from 2009 (69.9 GWh). Commercial and manufacturing sector consumption accounted for 53.3% of total consumption in 2010 recording an increase of 10.8% from 2009, owing to the opening of new hotels. Consumption from the residential sector recorded a huge decrease of 48.7% from 15.3 GWh (2009) to 7.8 GWh (2010), and accounted for 12.7% of the total consumption. Other sub-sectors which make up the remaining of total consumption in 2010 include government departments (13.3%), schools (3.3%), religious organisations (5.2%) and hotels (5.7%).<br />
<br />
In 2010 petroleum consumption totaled at 90.9 million litres, seeing an increase of 5.9 % from 2009 (88.2 million litres). By sector, the transport sector consumed 67.9% of total petroleum consumption, accounting for 60.6 million litres of fuel, recording a decrease of 1.2% from 2009. The electricity sector consumed 20.8% of total consumption accounting for 18.95 million litres of fuel for electricity generation, an increase by 5.9% from 2009. The remaining 12.5% of fuel consumption is accounted mainly to the commercial and residential sectors.<br />
<br />
Past energy efficiency activities have comprised studies of energy-saving potentials and the provision of policy and advisory assistance, and have generally lacked a tangible implementation focus relating to capacity building and catalysing the development of EE appliances and equipment. There have also been few efforts to stimulate the sector using innovative EE technologies. There is thus a significant potential for energy conservation and efficiency in both the electricity and the liquid fuel sectors that should be realised urgently, facilitating the use of EE equipment and developing and implementing EE provisions on construction of new buildings in applicable building codes in particular. Energy efficiency initiatives currently running in the country include a minimum energy performance standards and labelling project for appliances, as well as energy auditing for public buildings and street lighting.</p>

Ownership: 

<p>
<b>Electricity market</b><br />
The <i><b>Electric Power Corporation</b></i> (<b>EPC</b>, <a href="http://www.epc.ws">www.epc.ws</a>) is a wholly government-owned corporation, and is vested with all operating responsibilities for the power sector. It was incorporated on 19 December 1972 under the Electric Power Corporation Act 1972. The above Act was superseded by the EPC Act 1980 with amendments made in 1984, 1986, 1989 and 1992-1993 under the EPC Amendment Act 1981. Subject to these Acts, the Electric Power Corporation is an autonomous government-owned corporation. The general policies of the EPC are determined by a Board of Directors, chaired by the Minister of Works, Transport and Infrastructure. The utility operates as a separate entity, and is defined as a public trading body under the Public Bodies Act (2001), with the principal objective of operating as a commercial business. The EPC provides power to 96% of the population in Samoa.<br />
<br />
<b>Oil and gas market</b><br />
There is no upstream oil industry in the country. Imports of petroleum products are handled exclusively by <i><b>Exxon Mobil</b></i>, while <i><b>Petroleum Products Suppliers Limited</b></i> (PPS, <a href="http://www.ppssamoa.com">www.ppssamoa.com</a>) distributes petroleum fuels in Samoa. PPS is a privately owned Samoan company established in 2002. It successfully bid for the sole petroleum fuel distribution contract for 5 years in Samoa in 2003, and secured another 5 year contract term when the fuel contract was re-tendered in 2009. PPS was the first Samoan company to operate and manage the fuel distribution in the country, a role that up to then had only been the domain of the major oil companies. <i><b>Exxon Mobil</b></i> has also been given a 5 year contract to supply fuel for Samoa until 2013.&nbsp;Both contracts are reviewed at the end of 5 year and go through a tendering process every 5 years.<br />
<br />
LPG imports and sales are mainly operated by <i><b>British Oxygen Company (BOC) Gas Ltd</b></i> and <i><b>Origin Energy Ltd</b></i> which are foreign owned firms with part local ownership. Other products such as lubricants and Greases can be brought in by private companies.</p>

Structure / extent of competition: 

<p>
<b>Electricity market</b><br />
Electricity generation, transmission and distribution are exclusively under the authority of the EPC, with no competition being present in the power sector. Partnership with the private sector, the community and all stakeholders is encouraged and strengthened, so as to allow private sector involvement in power production.<br />
<br />
<b>Oil and gas market</b><br />
In 1998 the Government of Samoa introduced and controlled effectively new supply and pricing arrangements by owning all the petroleum storage facilities and tendering out operation to a supplier and distributer every 5 years. This arrangement allows the control of domestic petroleum prices to be reflective of international market prices. The Ministry of Finance controls and manages this arrangement. PPS is a privately-owned company, and has a monopoly on the distribution of petroleum products to the country.<br />
<br />
The <i><b>Price Control Board</b></i> which operates under the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Labour (MCIL) sets LPG ceiling price range.</p>

Existence of an energy framework and programmes to promote sustainable energy: 

<p>
The Government&rsquo;s objective is to change Samoa&rsquo;s reliance on fossil fuels to a low carbon economy by 2020. The Samoan Government endorsed the National Energy Policy in 2007. It encourages the use of renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, coconut oil, hydro and energy from wastes.<br />
<br />
In the <i><b>Strategy for the Development of Samoa</b></i><i><b> 2012-2016</b></i>, increased investment in RES appears as a key strategic outcome with specific areas to work on:<br />
1. Promote and increase RE investment and generation;<br />
2. Efficient, affordable and reliable electricity supply;<br />
3. Effective management of petroleum supply;<br />
4. Promote energy efficiency practices in all sectors particularly the transport sector; and<br />
5. Efficient and effective coordination and management of the sector through the implementation of the energy sector plan.<br />
<br />
The indicators for Samoa&rsquo; sustainable energy supply according to the Strategy will be:<br />
1. Gradual phasing out of fossil fuels;<br />
2.To increase the contribution of RE for energy services and supply by 8% over the 4 year&nbsp; planning horizon;<br />
3. Complete and implement energy sector plan;<br />
4. Energy regulatory functions established;<br />
<br />
The Strategy also regards energy efficiency practices throughout the country as imperative to enhance public awareness and understanding of the importance of conserving energy and its efficient use, for the most part in the transport sector. According to the Strategy: &ldquo;<i>transport is vital to the social and economic development of Samoa, therefore it is important to promote energy efficiency practices, particularly with the increasing petroleum prices. Other energy efficient good practices in the transport sector include the use of public transport, carpooling, and use of bicycles</i>&rdquo;.<br />
<br />
The increase and variance in energy demand, with the high associated costs, has highlighted the need for a comprehensive framework to guide and manage the growing energy sector. The first <b>Samoa National Energy Policy 2007 (SNEP)</b> is intended to provide a clear direction for all energy developments in Samoa. The SNEP vision is &ldquo;<i>to enhance the quality of life for all through access to reliable, affordable and environmentally sound energy services and supply</i>&rdquo;. In support of the energy sector vision, the overarching goal is &ldquo;<i>to increase the share and contribution of renewable energy in mass production and energy services and supply by 20%, by the year 2030</i>&rdquo;.<br />
<br />
This goal will be achieved through the successful implementation of strategies in five areas: Energy Planning and Management, Petroleum, Electricity, Transport and Renewable Energy. The strategic interventions in these areas will address the dimensions of energy efficiency and conservation, the environmental and social aspects, the building of human and institutional capacity, capital resource constraints, the legal framework, and the promotion and dissemination of information.&nbsp;<br />
<br />
<b>Coconut Oil (CNO)/Biofuel project</b><br />
The EPC has been trialing the use of CNO biofuel to substitute diesel for electricity generation since 2008. The initial setup of a 2% CNO to a 98% diesel blend has been increased to a 5% CNO to 95% diesel blend. Blending trials are continuing and CNO is currently being procured from two local CNO producers.<br />
<br />
The EPC plans to expand its renewable energy portfolio through the installation of a US$4 million 400kWp grid connected solar PV system in 2012 through the Pacific Environment Community (PEC) funding with a feasibility study to be funded under the Pacific Islands Greenhouse Gas Abatement through Renewable Energy (PIGGAREP) with an estimated amount of about US$60,000.<br />
<br />
The <i><b>Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment</b></i> (MNRE) is midway through the tendering process for a 500kW biomass gasification pilot plant which is planned to be installed in 2012.<br />
<br />
Crops Division constructed a 10,000 litre biogas digester under the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries in 2010 as a pilot project. The Crops Division is interested in further developing a design that could utilize local materials to bring the cost of constructing a suitable biogas digester size to an affordable price for replication in Samoa.<br />
<br />
The ADB&rsquo;s Pacific Approach 2010-2014 was approved in November 2009 and includes operational priorities such as energy. ADB&rsquo;s country partnership strategy 2008-2012 for Samoa and Country Operations Business Plan 2012-2014 share the focus.<br />
<br />
In response to the keen interest in and assigned high priority to reducing consumption of fossil fuels, expressed by five Pacific developing counties including Samoa, the ADB approved regional technical assistance for <i><b>Promoting Energy Efficiency in the Pacific</b></i> (Phase 2) to provide preliminary assistance to reduce fossil fuel consumption in these five countries through demand-side energy efficiency assessment. The <i><b>Promoting Energy Efficiency in the Pacific </b></i>(Phase 2) is implemented over a 4-year period between 1 April 2011 and 31 March 2015. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment is the responsible agency for Samoa.<br />
<br />
GHG Abatement through Energy Efficiency in the Land Transport Sector project, supported by the International Union for Conservation for Nature (IUCN) has been implemented between 2009 and 2011. It is a a multi sector project involving land transport, power utility and the Samoa Research and Development Institute, and focuses on reducing GHG emissions in the land transport sector by strengthening energy efficiency in motorised transport operations; promotion of non-motorised transport; and the development of bio-fuels to replace or reduce imports of refined petroleum fuel. Through this project, production of coconut biodiesel has been tested for use in the transportation<br />
<br />
In the related area of climate change and disaster management, the government implements the <i><b>Disaster Management Act 2007</b></i> through programmes and projects to enable Samoa to make significant greenhouse gas reductions and natural and cultural disaster readiness. These will address renewable energy use, energy efficiencies, sustainable transport and public awareness of the importance of greenhouse gas abatement.</p>

Current energy debates or legislation: 

<p>
The Samoa National Energy Policy is currently being reviewed with the development of the proposed Energy Sector Plan 2012-2016 which is anticipated to be launched in mid 2012.&nbsp;<br />
<br />
A range of investigations and pilot studies are already underway to assess the feasibility of renewable energy sources, including solar, wind power, coconut oil, landfill gas and biomass gasification. This research will identify the renewable energy sources that are cost-effective in terms of investment, operational and maintenance costs under Samoan conditions. Potential future investments may include:</p>
<ul>
<li>
construction of around 5M KWH p.a. of on-grid solar energy installation within the next 3 years. Options include static photovoltaic and sun tracking technologies (T$50M);</li>
<li>
full-scale development of other renewable energy sources (wind power, coconut oil, landfill gas, small-scale biomass gasification), depending on the outcomes of research and technical and financial feasibility studies currently underway (T$50M); and</li>
<li>
in the longer term, the option of large-scale gasification of biomass (from sources such as leucaena and coconut oil production waste) is also being investigated.<br />
&nbsp;</li>
</ul>

Major energy studies: 

<p>
Samoa has participated in regional RE projects, such as a Biomass Resource Assessment coordinated by SOPAC; the Pacific Islands Renewable Energy Project coordinated by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme; the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program coordinated by the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Promotion of Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Abatement, co-financed by the ADB and the Government of Netherlands; and the Regional Energy Program on Poverty Reduction financed by the United Nations Development Programme. These regional programs associated with national level activities indicate Samoa&rsquo;s willingness to explore and consolidate future opportunities in the field of renewable energy.&nbsp;</p>

Role of government: 

<p>
The main government department responsible for Energy Policy is the <i><b>Energy Unit </b></i>which is located in the <b><i>Ministry of Finance&rsquo;s Economic Planning and Policy Division </i></b>(<b>EPPD</b>, <a href="http://www.mof.gov.ws">www.mof.gov.ws</a>). The <i><b>Energy Unit</b></i> is responsible for energy planning, policy and coordination, and energy project coordination. The <i><b>Ministry of Finance</b></i> is also responsible for petroleum supply arrangements.<br />
<br />
The <i><b>Minister of Works, Transport and Infrastructure</b></i> oversees the state-owned EPC.<br />
<br />
The <i><b>Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment</b></i> is responsible for environmental aspects of energy use including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change matters.<br />
<br />
The <i><b>Department of Lands, Surveys and Environment</b></i> is the implementing agency for the UNFCCC. The department is to provide national policies and guidelines regarding matters of climate change.<br />
<br />
Others relevant to the energy policy implementation include:</p>
<ul>
<li>
the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries and Meteorology,</li>
<li>
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs,</li>
<li>
the Ministry of Transport,</li>
<li>
the Treasury Department,</li>
<li>
the Samoa Water Authority Corporation,</li>
<li>
the Public Works Department,</li>
<li>
the Office of the Attorney General,</li>
<li>
the Customs Department,</li>
<li>
the Department of Trade, Commerce and Industry,</li>
<li>
the Electric Power Corporation.</li>
</ul>

Government agencies in sustainable energy: 

<p>
<i><b>Renewable Energy Division (RED)</b></i><br />
Within the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, the Renewable Energy Division (RED), established in 2007, is responsible for RE resources and EE programs and projects at the national and international level.&nbsp; RED launched its strategy plan (2007-2017) to focus on Climate Change Mitigation, Biofuels and Renewable Energy Resources Programs, contributing to the achievement of national and international obligations.<br />
<br />
<i><b>Scientific Research Organisation of Samoa (SROS)</b></i><br />
The Scientific Research Organisation, established in 2007, is seen as a means of improving local expertise in RE technologies. The primary function is to achieve a reduction in fuel imports and greenhouse gas emissions through the development of locally available RE resources suitable for road transportation and electricity generation. The potentials for import substitution for oil and petroleum products will be investigated.<br />
<br />
<i><b>National Energy Coordinating Committee (NECC)</b></i><br />
The NECC was officially set up in August 2011 for efficient and effective coordination of the energy sector as well as for developing an implementation plan for the Energy Policy. It will appraise all energy related proposals before submission with a recommendation to Cabinet.<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Energy planning procedures: 

<p>
<i><b>Strategy for the Development of Samoa (SDS) 2008-2012</b></i><br />
The SDS presents Samoa&rsquo;s development vision, &ldquo;improved quality of life for All&rdquo;, its medium-term national development goals, and the strategies that will be implemented during the period. The objective of an efficient and effective coordination will be pursued. This requires institutional strengthening of the Energy Unit within the Ministry of Finance; the establishment of a Regulatory Body consisting of energy stakeholders from government and private sector and with a mandate to govern the energy sector; the formulation of an appropriate legal framework for energy sector management; and the development of a reliable energy database management system. A reduction of dependency on fossil fuels in favour of renewable energy sources is encouraged through implementation of five strategies:<br />
(1) promoting the sustainable use of indigenous energy resources and renewable energy technologies;<br />
(2) promoting partnerships with communities and all energy stakeholders, especially development partners, in the development of renewable energy programmes in Samoa;<br />
(3) exploring training opportunities to build capacity in renewable energy technologies;<br />
(4) encouraging the commercial use of renewable energy research findings of the Institute of Research and Development; and, (5) enhancing public knowledge and understanding of renewable energy, its costs, and benefits.<br />
<br />
<i><b>Samoa National Infrastructure Strategic Plan</b></i> has been developed with the support of Pacific Infrastructure Advisory Center (PIAC) to outline Samoa&rsquo;s priorities and directions for major initiatives in the economic infrastructure sector over next 5-10 years, and was approved by the Samoa Cabinet Development Committee (CDC) in 2011. The plan covers&#12288;infrastructure&#12288;initiatives&#12288;with&#12288;national&#12288;significance&#12288;and&#12288;includes&#12288;investments&#12288;in&#12288;water&#12288;supply and sanitation, power, information technology, transport and solid waste management. It will be regularly updated as part of national planning and budgeting process.<br />
<br />
<i><b>Power Sector Expansion Project (PSEP) 2008-2015</b></i><br />
This project, which is a sector loan, is designed to support the implementation of the EPC&#39;s Investment Plan (2008&ndash;2015), which includes the construction and rehabilitation of power plants, as a well as the development and rehabilitation of transmission/distribution lines. Additionally, on the basis of the Accelerated Co-Financing Scheme (ACFA) that the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) concluded with the ADB under the Enhanced Sustainable Development for Asia (ESDA) initiative, the project will be co-financed with the ADB, and cooperate (by providing grants) with the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID).<br />
<br />
The objective of the PSEP is to &ldquo;improve the capacity of the power sector in providing sustainable and reliable electricity services to all consumers at affordable prices and to reduce its technical losses&rdquo;. The two core subprojects under this project are the Hospital Feeder Upgrading Stage 1 and the Single/Three Phase Prepayment Metering Project. The subprojects of Vending System Expansion, refurbishment of Lalomauga Hydro Switchgears and Power System Planning Software are completed. Other subprojects of Fiaga Diesel Power Station, Refurbishment of Tanugamanono Diesel Plan Generators, Vaipu Pumping Station, Upgrading of Alaoa 6.6 kV Transmission Line to 22 kV, 33 kV Transmission Underground Cable from Fiaga Diesel Power Station to Tanugamanono Power Station via Fuluasou Substation, Hospital Feeder Upgrading Stage 2, Upolu Low Voltage Network Improvements, Fuluasou Substation to Apia Wharf Area 22 kV Underground Cable, 22 kV Overhead Conductor Upgrading Programme, Hydropower Scheme, Low Voltage Network Improvement Programme, System Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA), and Refurbishment of Salelologa Power Station are in progress.<br />
<br />
<b><i>Samoa Photovoltaic Rural Electrification (PVRE) Programme</i></b><br />
This project hopes to provide the remaining non-electrified households in Samoa (roughly 5% of the population) with a 24-hours supply of electricity, using stand alone solar photovoltaic installations.<br />
With the support of the UNDP, the government of Samoa, SOPAC, the government&nbsp;of Denmark&#39;s PIEPSAP Project and the ADB, a preparatory phase was undertaken&nbsp;for this project in early 2007. In 2008, the surveys were completed and the number of non-electrified households was&nbsp;identified, and the outcomes of&nbsp;the&nbsp;preparatory phase were successfully achieved, with potential mini-grid sites identified at Sa&#39;aga, Aleisa and Apolima. In 2010, two separate proposals were submitted to the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), for (1) a 500kWp grid connected solar system and (2) stand-alone solar grid, in order to provide electricity for the remaining 3% unelectrified households. The PVRE project was revised as most of the households that were previously without electricity supply from the grid, now have access following the tsunami. This project is in progress as of 2010.<br />
<br />
<i><b>Implementing the Samoa National Energy Policy</b></i><br />
ADB&rsquo;s technical assistance project, worth $1.85 million, is helping the government in the following areas:</p>
<ul>
<li>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; establishment of the power sector regulator (the structure and the office of the regulator), including the revision of the Electricity Act and Regulations and</li>
<li>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; preparation of operating manuals;</li>
<li>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; development of the Clean Energy Fund, including the operational framework and initial project pipeline, and provision of seed capital;</li>
<li>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; carbon trade by establishing the CDM designated national authority (DNA); and</li>
<li>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; provision of resident financial advisors to the Electric Power Corporation to support the implementation of its reform agenda.</li>
</ul>

Energy regulator Date of creation: 

<p>
The Electricity Act 2010 establishes the Office of the Electricity Regulator (&lsquo;the Regulator&rsquo;). As such it endeavours to lay out the powers and duties of the Regulator. In particular, the Act details the powers of the Regulator to attend to matters such as the establishment of tariffs for electricity, and to monitor the standards of electricity network service providers and generators.</p>

Degree of independence: 

<p>
A multi-sector regulator has been appointed within the Office of the Regulator to manage power regulation. MOF has allocated budget for the Office of the Regulator to manage power regulation in fiscal year 2012-13.<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Regulatory framework for sustainable energy: 

<p>
In December 2010 the Samoan Parliament passed the Electricity Act. The Act creates an independent regulator to oversee the electric sector, while promoting competition and use of new technologies by service providers.<br />
<br />
Under the Act, two types of licences are issued, namely the generation licence and the network service licence. Both licences are issued by the Regulator provided that an applicant for such licence meets the prescribed criteria. The Act also proposes to impose duties and requirements upon the Regulator to consult with public stakeholders when the Regulator is in the process of setting tariffs.<br />
<br />
The Electricity Tribunal is also established under the Act and is designed to hear all appeals relating to a decision of the Regulator. The Act also provides the Regulator with the power to handle consumer complaints against licensees. Amendments to the Electric Power Corporation Act 1980 are also required for the Regulator to hold certain functions previously held by the Electric Power Corporation (EPC), such as the power to establish tariffs and will be responsible for establishing proper standards for the provision of services relating to electricity. The Act further provides for consequential amendments to the Fair Trading Act 1998 and transitional matters such as the automatic holding of a generating and network service licence to be held by EPC for 10 years effective from the commencement of the Act.<br />
<br />
No dedicated policy for sustainable energy exists, although provisions are made under the SNEP for the building of capacity for renewable energy technologies, as well as improving consumer awareness of the potential for renewable energy, and measures to create development opportunities in the sector.</p>

Regulatory roles: 

<p>
Under the Electric Power Corporation Act 1980, the EPC has the responsibilities to enforce all regulations made by the Head of State for the electricity sector, whilst not having the mandate to construct regulations themselves.&nbsp; The EPC is mandated to observe and enforce the payment of the electricity tariff, as established by the government, as well as all fees for connection to electrical supplies.</p>

Role of government department in energy regulation: 

<p>
The Samoa National Energy Policy, approved in June 2007, identifies the need to promote clean and renewable energy resources and energy efficiency to reduce Samoa&rsquo;s heavy reliance on imported fossil fuel. RE initiatives in Samoa have been funded by international donors on an ad-hoc basis. In response to the need for greater coordination, the Energy Unit of the Ministry of Finance (MOF) has been mandated with the overall responsibility for policy and strategic planning in the energy sector.&nbsp; The Energy Unit is in the process of development. Energy regulation is one of the key priorities.</p>

Regulatory barriers: 

<p>
Despite Samoa&rsquo;s active involvement in a number of clean and renewable energy efficiency initiatives, the institutional arrangements for participating in the clean development mechanism has yet to be established. In addition, a lack of coordination has been observed between various disparate energy projects in the country. The establishment of an independent regulatory body, as well as institutional re-structuring of the government&#39;s current energy and environmental bodies, would lead to a more enabling environment for energy projects, including renewable energy projects, and the involvement of the private sector.</p>

References: 

Ministry of Finance (2011) Energy Review Report &ndash; 2010, Issue No. 4, October 2011. Available at: <a href="http://www.mof.gov.ws/Portals/195/ENERGY%20REVIEW%202010-FINAL.pdf">http... [Accessed 14th September 2013]<br />
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Ministry of Finance (2011) Energy Sector, Managing the Energy Sector. Available at: <a href="http://www.mof.gov.ws/Services/Energy/EnergySector/tabid/5817/language/e... [Accessed 14th September 2013]<br />
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Ministry of Finance (2008) Strategy for the Development of Samoa 2008-2012, May 2008. Available at: <a href="http://www.sprep.org/att/IRC/eCOPIES/Countries/Samoa/104.pdf">http://www... [Accessed 14th September 2013]<br />
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Mohanty, Manoranjan (2012): New renewable energy sources, green energy development and climate change: Implications to Pacific Island countries, Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 23 Iss: 3 pp. 264- 274. Available at: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14777831211217468">http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/1... [Accessed 14th September 2013]<br />
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SPREP (2004) Samoa National Report, Pacific Regional Energy Assessment 2004, Volume 11, Pacific Islands Renewable Energy Project, Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP). Available at: <a href="http://www.sprep.org/att/publication/000488_PIREP_Samoa_NatRept.pdf">htt... [Accessed 14th September 2013]<br />
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Ministry of Finance (2012): Strategy for the Development of Samoa 2012 -2016. Available at: <a href="http://www.mof.gov.ws/Portals/195/Services/Economy/SDS%202012%20-%202016... [Accessed 14th September 2013]<br />
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ADB (2011) Country Operation Business Plan: Samoa 2012-2014, July 2011. Available at: <a href="http://beta.adb.org/sites/default/files/cobp-sam-2012-2014.pdf">http://b... [Accessed 14th September 2013]<br />
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PRIF (2011) PRIF Newsletter, Issue 5, March 2011, Pacific Region Infrastructure Facility (PRIF). Available at: <a href="http://www.theprif.org/sites/theprif.org/files/PRIF%20Newsletter%20Issue... [Accessed 14th September 2013]<br />
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PRIF (2011) PRIF Newsletter, Issue 6, August 2011, Pacific Region Infrastructure Facility (PRIF). Available at: <a href="http://www.theprif.org/sites/theprif.org/files/PRIF%20Newsletter%20Issue... 14th September 2013]<br />
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Office of the Attorney General of Samoa (2010): Legislative Drafting Update. Available at <a href="http://www.ag.gov.ws/files/Publications/Legislative%20Drafting/Newslette... 14th September 2013]<br />
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