Poland (2012)

Degree of reliance on imported energy: 

<p>
Poland imports nearly 90% of its crude oil and 66% of its natural gas. Its main supplier remains Russia. Poland&rsquo;s amount of Russian energy imports in the past was higher than it is today largely because of a consistent policy of supplier diversification over the past decade. For example, in 1988 Russia held a dominant position in the Polish gas import market, but by 2008 Russian imports were being augmented and challenged by alternative imports into Poland from Central Asia. However, Russia&#39;s prevailing dominance over the Polish gas import market continues as a result of the Soviet legacy gas transport infrastructure, which was designed to transmit fuels from the East to Poland. The heavy reliance on external supplies of gas to Poland remains a threat to the security of energy supply to the nation.<br />
<br />
The imports/exports balance by energy source in 2007 was as follows (all units ktoe):<br />
Solid Fuel: 3760.8 / 11359.1<br />
Oil and Products: 28917.6 / 3332.2<br />
Natural Gas: 8245.7 / 35.88<br />
Electricity: 664.3 / 1122.0<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Main sources of Energy: 

<p>
Total&nbsp; installed electricity capacity&nbsp; (2009):&nbsp; 33 GW</p>
<ul>
<li>
Coal: 87 %</li>
<li>
Hydropower: 7 %</li>
<li>
Oil: 3%</li>
<li>
Gas: 1.8 %</li>
<li>
Wind, geothermal: 1 %</li>
<li>
Biomass 0.2 %&nbsp;</li>
</ul>
<p>
<br />
Poland has substantial coal reserves &ndash; ranked eighth in the world. Poland is a net exporter of electricity and it is the largest electricity producer and consumer in Central and Eastern Europe.<br />
<br />
The primary energy demand of Poland in 2010 was met by :</p>
<ul>
<li>
Coal: 58.2%.</li>
<li>
Oil: 26.7%.</li>
<li>
Gas: 13.1%.</li>
<li>
Hydro: 0.8%</li>
</ul>
<p>
<br />
Share of Total Primary Energy Supply* (2009, IEA): 94 Mtoe&nbsp;</p>
<ul>
<li>
Oil: 25.6%</li>
<li>
Natural Gas: 12.7%</li>
<li>
Hydro: 0.2%</li>
<li>
Biofuels and Waste: 7.1%</li>
<li>
Geothermal/ solar/ wind: 0.1%</li>
<li>
Coal/ peat: 54.3%</li>
</ul>
<p>
<br />
*Share of TPES excludes electricity trade<br />
<br />
94% of electricity generation in Poland is based on coal.<br />
<br />
Hydropower makes up a 1.8% share of the total amount of electricity generated in the country with 2,668 GWh and 7.2% of the total domestic installed capacity with 2,327 MW.&nbsp;<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Country: 

Poland

Extent of the network: 

<p>
Virtually 100% of Polish households have access to electricity.</p>

Capacity concerns: 

<p>
Energy security remains an important concern in terms of availability and price of primary energy and reliability of supply. Reliability of supply is of particular concern for the power sector as many of its operating assets are near or beyond their design life.<br />
<br />
Poland&rsquo;s coal-fired generation fleet is very old, with more than 70% of power plants over 30 years old, 40% over 40 years old, and 15% over 50 years old, with more than half slated for retirement within 5 &ndash; 20 years. According to energy experts, multibillion Euro investments will be required to renew the exhausted power sector and guarantee uninterrupted supplies of electric energy. Any delays in investment decisions may lead to blackouts in the near future.<br />
<br />
The issue becomes increasingly complicated when one adds the GHG emission reduction target (20% by 2020), as more than 90% of Poland&rsquo;s electricity generation is based on coal-fired technologies.<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Potential for Renewable Energy: 

<p>
As Poland has limited hydropower and geothermal potential, wind power, biogas and biomass are expected to be the primary sources of new renewable energy. Limited solar applications for water and space heating are also expected to grow.<br />
<br />
<u>Hydropower</u><br />
Polish hydropower resources are limited. There are 12 large hydro-electric power stations with an installed capacity of 2271 MW. Low soil permeability, in conjunction with a low average elevation, mean hydro-electric power generation has limited potential in the country. Hydropower currently contributes about 3.5% of the total RES production<br />
<br />
<u>Bioenergy</u><br />
Biomass will continue to be important until 2020. There is a large potential to use biomass and biogas as an energy source, especially in the rural areas.<br />
<br />
Energy generation from fuel-wood, forestry residues, agricultural residues and surpluses have experienced the most development in recent years. The use of coal has been reduced or replaced by the conversion of existing plants to industrial and individual heating plants, district heating and CHP plants which use biomass.<br />
<br />
Wastewater treatment plants, agricultural and livestock activities and landfill projects to produce energy from biogas are being implemented.<br />
<br />
The use of bio-fuels (bio-ethanol and bio-diesel) is also an area that appears to be developing. This has been a priority of the Polish government.<br />
<br />
<u>Wind energy</u><br />
According to a report published by the Polish Wind Energy Association in November 2009, 13 GW of wind energy could be installed in Poland by 2020.<br />
<br />
Wind power is the only RET in Poland ready to attract significant investment, and there is a substantial pipeline of large wind farms spread evenly over the area of the entire country. These projects could be commissioned relatively soon and will make an important contribution to meeting Poland&rsquo;s target mandated by the new EU Renewable Energy Directive.&nbsp;<br />
<br />
In 2009, the Polish wind market continued its growth by adding 181 MW of new capacity, taking total installations up to 724.6 MW. 864 GWh of wind power were produced in 2009. 22 wind farms currently operate in Poland, and there are also single turbines or clusters of small turbines spread across the country.<br />
<br />
<u>Solar energy</u><br />
Roughly 123,000 m2 of solar thermal collectors were installed in the country as of 2005, with a total capacity of about 85 MWt. Country-wide extensive research on the technical and economical feasibility of solar energy is needed.<br />
<br />
<u>Geothermal energy</u><br />
Poland&#39;s geothermal energy reserve is rich in low enthalpy resources. Installed capacity currently stands at approximately 68.5 MWt, of which 26.2 MWt is from heat pumps.<br />
Geothermal resources in Poland typically range from 20 &deg;C to 120 &deg;C and as such would be better suited for heat generation rather than power.&nbsp;<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Potential for Energy Efficiency: 

<p>
In the period 1996-2006 the energy efficiency index for the whole economy (ODEX) decreased by 37%, against 8% for the EU27. This is due to remarkable improvements in the industrial sector. Efficiency in households improved in line with the country average while transport sector achievements lagged behind. However, significant potential for efficiency gains still remains as Poland&rsquo;s energy intensity is double that of the EU average.<br />
<br />
Poland&rsquo;s specific national EE targets also represent major commitments towards the EU in the context of the latter&rsquo;s climate and energy package (20/20/20 by 2020).&nbsp; The government aims at achieving zero growth in energy demand over the medium- to long-term to reduce energy intensity to the level of the EU-15 by 2030, while increasing the share of RE. In addition to its renewable energy target, Poland targets a 20% reduction in energy consumption compared to business as usual by 2020.<br />
<br />
<strong>Industry</strong></p>
<ul>
<li>
Financing measures through the EBRD for EE projects worth up to &euro;85 million for SME and&nbsp; &euro;1 million for RE.</li>
<li>
&lsquo;White certificates&rsquo; program, financing EE improvements through certificate acquisition and trading.</li>
</ul>
<p>
<strong>Utilities</strong></p>
<ul>
<li>
Improving supply-side EE through cogeneration promotion.</li>
<li>
Smart metering program, piloted by two utilities, to analyse and improve demand-side efficiency.</li>
<li>
National RE Action Plan: 15.5% of energy demand met by RE by 2020.</li>
</ul>
<p>
<strong>Transport</strong></p>
<ul>
<li>
Ordinances: Electronic Tolling System, Vehicle and Fuel Taxation, and Technical Inspections.</li>
<li>
Management systems for traffic and transport infrastructure, including rationalisation of transport usage and promotion of sustainable transport systems.</li>
</ul>
<p>
<strong>Residential</strong></p>
<ul>
<li>
Creation of the Thermo-Modernisation Fund for energy efficiency investments in households, and penetration of EE appliances.</li>
<li>
Heat tariff to promote cogeneration.</li>
<li>
Minimum thermal insulation standards.</li>
<li>
Information dissemination and advocacy measures for EE.</li>
</ul>
<p>
<strong>Public</strong></p>
<ul>
<li>
Information campaigns and capacity-building measures.</li>
<li>
Minimum EE standards for public buildings.</li>
</ul>

Ownership: 

<p>
Until 1990, the Polish power industry was a state-owned monopoly, which consisted of fully-integrated state-owned companies charged with the generation, transmission, and distribution of energy.<br />
<br />
The Energy Law of 1997 opened the way to the restructuring of Poland&rsquo;s electricity power sector into three subsystems: generation, transmission, and distribution.<br />
&nbsp;<br />
The electricity sector remains largely controlled by the State, even if important reforms were undertaken.<br />
<br />
Presently, the Polish government&rsquo;s agenda includes the strengthening of the distribution network before the planned opening of the electricity market under the electricity market directive in 2007.<br />
<br />
Status of market liberalization:<br />
The Ordinance of the Minister of Economy on the schedule for market opening to competition set out the following deadlines:<br />
<br />
- From 1 January 2002 customers with total annual purchase of electricity of more than 10 GWh.<br />
<br />
- From 1 January 2004, customers with total annual electricity purchase of more than 1 GWh.<br />
<br />
- From 1 July 2007, all others.<br />
<br />
As of 2007, the electricity market was made completely open. However, long-term electricity contracts have prevented market development. Due to the lengths of contact being set to give current market actors time to develop their infrastructure, the market is difficult to break into.<br />
<br />
PSE-Operator S.A.,(<a href="http://www.pse.com.pl/">http://www.pse.com.pl/</a>) the Polish Transmission System Operator was established in 2004, owned by PSE but as a legally unbundled company. There are several regional distribution companies which are also 100% subsidiaries of PSE SA.<br />
<br />
PKE (<a href="http://www.pke.pl/">http://www.pke.pl/</a>) is the largest generation company with a market share of about 17% in electricity generation and around 16% for heat. It was founded in 2000. PKE runs 8 power plants with a total capacity of 4952 MW.<br />
<br />
The Polish Oil and Gas Company (PGNiG) (<a href="http://www.pgnig.pl/">http://www.pgnig.pl/</a>) is the formerly state-owned oil and gas exploration and production company. As of 31 December 2004 PGNiG held shares in 64 companies incorporated under the commercial law.<br />
Nafta Polska is the holding company of Poland&#39;s oil industry, owned by the State Treasury. (<a href="http://www.naftapolska.com.pl/">http://www.naftapolska.com.pl/</a>). Further privatisation of the oil and gas market is ongoing.<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Structure / extent of competition: 

<p>
The Polish government has moved national legislation towards the EU energy market model. It has initiated privatisation and proposed amendments to the Energy Law, passed in March 2005, which transpose the EU&rsquo;s directives into the national legislation, paving the way for a competitive market.<br />
<br />
The power grid company Polish Electricity Grid PSE was established as a joint stock company, with the Polish State Treasury as its sole owner in 1990, responsible for the transmission of electricity. It has the monopoly of the electricity exchange and acts as a single purchaser.<br />
<br />
The extent to which generation companies can be allowed to consolidate their activities with distribution operators is a hotly debated issue at the moment. The former Government made a decision to draw up a plan of Government-run consolidation.<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Existence of an energy framework and programmes to promote sustainable energy: 

<p>
The 1997 Energy Law marks a major milestone in the process of adapting energy economy to market principles. Its purpose is the regulation of the energy market and the national energy policy. The Energy Law establishes the base for third party access (TPA), independent power producers (IPP), renewable energy sources (RES), least cost planning (LCP), integrated resource planning (IRP), energy regulatory authority (ERA), demand side management (DSM), and energy efficiency labels (EEL). One of the main targets stated in the act is to achieve efficiency in the production, distribution and use of energy and fuels. The latest amendment was on 21.10.2009.<br />
<br />
According to the Polish Energy Law, the government is obliged to publish a document on Energy Policy every four years.&nbsp;<br />
<br />
The Council of Ministers adopted on 10th November 2009 &ldquo;The Energy policy of Poland until 2030&quot;, which is a starting point for a debate on the country&rsquo;s energy strategy. The main priorities outlined in this document concern energy security, economic competitiveness, nuclear power, increasing environmental protection and improving energy efficiency.<br />
<br />
For the use of renewable energy sources, the document sets out the following targets: achieve 15% share of RES in final energy consumption by 2020, and 20% share by 2030. It is also planned to achieve, by 2020, a 10% share of biofuels of the market of transport fuels, and increase the use of second-generation biofuels.<br />
<br />
The main measures include:</p>
<ul>
<li>
stimulating development of RES through support mechanisms (green certificates)</li>
<li>
introducing additional support instruments</li>
<li>
effective use of biomass (agricultural biogas installations, 2nd generation of biofuels)</li>
<li>
creating conditions for building offshore wind farms</li>
<li>
development of RES supported by European Funds&nbsp;</li>
</ul>
<p>
<br />
In June 2007, following the requirement of Directive 2006/32/EC, the Government of Poland prepared the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan aiming to achieve the imposed by Directive indicative target 9% for energy savings in 2016 and an intermediate target of 2% in 2010. The document contains the list of innovative measures and funds, which will enable the achievement of assumed goals. The energy efficiency becomes the important element of the state energy policy.&nbsp;<br />
<br />
The draft Energy Efficiency Law, approved by the Council of Ministers in October 2010, has been passed by the Parliament on April 15, 2011 and awaits the President&rsquo;s approval.&nbsp;&nbsp; The Law introduces the White Certificate Programme (WCP) to encourage energy efficiency.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Current energy debates or legislation: 

<p>
The Polish government is currently working on a new amendment to the Energy Law which would implement the provisions of the new EU Renewables Directive.&nbsp; The objective was for this to be adopted by the end of 2010, but the deadline has not been met yet.&nbsp;<br />
<br />
The government has adopted a National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) that sets a detailed roadmap to demonstrate how it plans to meet its binding national target of 15.0% RE as a share of final consumption by 2020 within the context of the EU&rsquo;s climate and energy package.&nbsp; The NREAP was submitted to the EC in December 2010 and will be reviewed by it. The NREAP sets out the sectoral targets, the technology mix they expect to use, the trajectory they will follow and the measures and reforms they will undertake to overcome the barriers to developing RE. The NREAP will also be revised and updated at regular intervals and progress made will be critically reviewed and reported on by the EC.<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Major energy studies: 

<p>
The Polish Power Exchange (<a href="http://www.polpx.pl/en">http://www.polpx.pl/en</a>) is in charge of running non-mandatory energy market researches in Poland. It was created in 1999 and collaborates with other power exchanges in Europe. Since October 2005, the Polish Power Exchange handles the trade of certificates of electricity from renewable Energy Sources.<br />
<br />
The Institute of Urban Development (IRM, <a href="http://irm.krakow.pl/en/">http://irm.krakow.pl/en/</a>) carries out research and practical application of research results obtained in land management, environment shaping and protection, municipal and housing economies, building and real estate management.</p>

Role of government: 

<p>
The Ministry of Economy (<a href="http://www.mg.gov.pl/">http://www.mg.gov.pl/</a>) is responsible for energy policy, including energy efficiency policies. Within the Ministry of Economy the Energy Department is responsible for the implementation of tasks related to shaping the energy policy and regulatory environment in the scope of power and heat engineering sectors, coordination of shaping the energy policy and safety of functioning of national power and heat engineering systems.<br />
<br />
The Ministry of Treasury (<a href="http://www.msp.gov.pl/portal/en/">http://www.msp.gov.pl/portal/en/</a>) is involved in the restructuring of (public) energy companies.<br />
<br />
The Ministry of Environment (<a href="http://www.mos.gov.pl/?j=en">http://www.mos.gov.pl/?j=en</a>) is the institution responsible for the creation and implementation of Poland&rsquo;s climate policy, inventories of greenhouse gas emissions and sinks, its reporting and its verification.<br />
<br />
The Ministry of Finance (<a href="http://www.mf.gov.pl/?const=0&amp;lang=en">http://www.mf.gov.pl/?const=0...) is to some extent responsible for regulating the end-use energy prices and for providing funds for energy state enterprises.<br />
<br />
The Housing and Urban Development Office, supervised by the Ministry of Infrastructure is responsible for the operation of the Thermo-modernisation fund.&nbsp;<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Government agencies in sustainable energy: 

<p>
The Polish National Conservation Agency (KAPE) is a non-profit national organisation in the fields of rational use of the energy and renewable energy sources, linking governmental and non-governmental organisations with regulatory bodies, the energy distribution sector and end-users. It was founded in 1994, and it is 50% owned by the state.<br />
<br />
The Executive Office for the Climate Convention is part of the structure of the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management. The duties of the office include monitoring of Poland&rsquo;s commitments following the ratification of the climate convention, the signing of the Kyoto Protocol as well as the supervision of such commitments by other entities.<br />
<br />
The National Centre for Recording of Emissions at the Institute for Environmental Protection keeps air pollution inventories and related reports, creates databases, performance methodological analyses, and keeps the greenhouse gas emission registrations.<br />
<br />
APE (Agency for Energy Conservation) collaborates with Polish generating plants, producers of Renewable Energies and fluid fuels, energy heat related companies and producers of machinery, tools and computer systems used within the Polish energy sector.<br />
<br />
The Association of Polish Energy Actors at local and regional levels &ndash; EC Baltic Renewable Energy Centre (EC BREC) is responsible for the implementation of the state policy on Renewable Energy sources. The main objective of EC BREC is to stimulate the utilisation of RE sources by research, assistance with the creation of policies and plans, promotion of RE sources, technologies, and support for implementation.<br />
<br />
The Baltic Energy Conservation Agency (BAPE) promotes rational use of energy and Renewable Energy sources. BAPE has an advisory role and acts as the most important energy consulting organization in northern Poland. BAPE helps organisations, individuals, companies and local and regional authorities to tackle the legal, financial and environmental challenges created by the changing energy market in Poland.&nbsp;<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Energy planning procedures: 

<p>
Poland&rsquo;s government has introduced a number of regulatory, market and quasi-market measures to improve energy efficiency, such as: end-use consumer savings; increasing power and heat generation efficiency; reducing network losses; introducing mandatory performance certificates for buildings; improving its building standards; introducing minimum standards for power-consuming devices; and providing targeted loans and grants for investment in EE.<br />
<br />
The government expects that biomass and wind power will remain important components of its RE program over the next decade. It plans to improve the incentives for biomass use in smaller cogeneration facilities, which will increase the share of biomass in final energy consumption.<br />
<br />
The use of solar collectors for hot water supply and, to a lesser extent, for heating have increased 17-fold from 2001-9. The push for such sales came primarily from equipment suppliers, focusing on the end-user.<br />
<br />
In the latter half of 2010, the government launched financial support for such schemes through the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management.<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Energy regulator Date of creation: 

<p>
The Energy Regulatory Office (URE) (<a href="http://www.ure.gov.pl/portal/en/">http://www.ure.gov.pl/portal/en/</a>) was established in 1997.<br />
<br />
The URE:</p>
<ul>
<li>
Issues operating licenses and monitors developments in prices and tariffs.</li>
<li>
Has duties in the promotion of energy efficiency.</li>
<li>
Implements and supervises the energy markets&rsquo; liberalisation process.</li>
<li>
Was created with the aim of supporting, among other things, uniformity of solutions in the field of energy regulation, adoption of the relevant EU standards thus facilitating appropriate structural and system transformations</li>
</ul>
<p>
<br />
URE was closely connected with the creation of the competitive European energy market &ndash; to ensure security of supply, competitiveness of the economy, as well as environmental protection related to impact of energy processes.<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Degree of independence: 

<p>
The tasks of the regulator including the promotion of competition are the responsibility of the chairman of the Energy Regulatory Office (ERO/URE).<br />
<br />
The Chairman of ERO is appointed by the Prime Minister for a term of 5 years upon the request of the minister in charge of economic affairs.<br />
<br />
The Chairman of ERO may be recalled by the Prime Minister prior to the completion of the term of&nbsp; office<br />
<br />
The Deputy Chairman of ERO shall be designated and recalled by the minister in charge of economic affairs upon a motion of the chairman of ERO.<br />
<br />
The minister in charge of economic affairs shall publish an order which grants a statute to ERO which defines its internal structure and organisation.<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Regulatory framework for sustainable energy: 

<ul>
<li>
Law on Energy 1997, amended in 2006)</li>
<li>
Guidelines for Poland&rsquo;s Energy Policy until the year 2020 (2000)</li>
<li>
Strategy for the Development of RE Sector (2001)</li>
<li>
Long-term Strategy for Sustainable Development for Poland until 2025.</li>
</ul>
<p>
<br />
In 2000, the Polish government introduced a power purchase obligation for renewable energy sources, which was first amended in 2003, and again in August 2008. This requires energy suppliers to provide a certain minimum share of power generated by renewable sources (from 3.1% in 2005 up to 10.4% in 2010 and 12.9% in 2017).&nbsp;<br />
<br />
The existing Green Certificates Program, established in 2005, is designed to facilitate the implementation of renewable energy options by obligating energy suppliers to meet annual renewable energy targets or pay a sizeable penalty (the &ldquo;substitution fee&rdquo;) currently set at about EUR 65/MWh.&nbsp;<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Regulatory roles: 

<p>
The powers and responsibilities of the President of the ERO include:</p>
<ul>
<li>
Supervision of quality of supplies and customer-oriented services in the field of trade in gaseous fuels and electricity,</li>
<li>
Imposition of penalties accordingly to the rules defined in the Act,</li>
<li>
Co-operation with competent bodies to counteract energy undertakings&rsquo; monopolistic practices, and</li>
<li>
Publication of information that contributes to higher efficiency of energy consumption.</li>
</ul>
<p>
<br />
The regulatory authority has the power to exempt energy undertakings operating in a competitive environment, from mandatory submission of tariffs for approval.<br />
<br />
Therefore, in particular circumstances, the regulation consists of continuous monitoring of markets and behaviour of their participants. This allows the Regulator to intervene by reintroducing the obligation of tariffs to be approved, or, in case any irregularities, by imposing penalties.<br />
<br />
Moreover, as a mediator, the Regulator settles disputes between individual market participants, in particular &ndash; between suppliers and customers.<br />
<br />
The Chairman of ERO regulates the activity of the energy enterprises on the basis of the law and the state energy policy, aiming at balancing the interests of the energy enterprises and the energy customers.<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Role of government department in energy regulation: 

<p>
The minister in charge of Economic Affairs consults the Chairman of ERO and determines, by way of ordinance, detailed terms of establishing and calculation of tariffs applicable to electricity as well as the detailed rules of settlement in the trade in electricity, taking the following into consideration: the state energy policy, ensuring the coverage of the justified expenses of the energy enterprises, including the costs of their development, the protection of customers, improvement of the efficiency of supply and use of electricity, equal treatment of the customers, eliminating cross-subsidy and the transparency of prices and fee rates.&nbsp;</p>

Regulatory barriers: 

<p>
There are few legal and financial mechanisms (grants, soft loans) to promote and achieve RES goals, and a strong need to review and estimate how existing mechanisms create a synergy of RES promotion or overlapping of mechanisms. Liberalisation of the electricity market does not support the development of RES as regards electricity.</p>

References: 

IEA Energy Statistics (2009). Available at: <a href="http://www.iea.org/countries/membercountries/poland/statistics/">http://... 16th September 2013]<br />
<br />
Austrian Energy Agency Country Profile - Poland. Available at:&nbsp;<a href="http://www.enercee.net/countries/country-selection/poland.html">http://w... [Accessed 16th September 2013]<br />
<br />
Business Monitor International. Poland Power Report Q4 2011.&nbsp;<a href="http://www.marketreportsonline.com/125634.html">http://www.marketreports... 16th September 2013]<br />
<br />
KPMG. Central and Eastern European Hydro Power Outlook. 2010. Available at: <a href="http://www.kpmg.com/HU/en/IssuesAndInsights/ArticlesPublications/Pages/C... 16th September 2013]<br />
<br />
Nyga-Lukaszewska, H. (2011) Poland&acute;s Energy Security Strategy. Available at: <a href="http://www.ensec.org/index.php?view=article&amp;catid=114%3Acontent0211&... [Accessed 16th September 2013]<br />
<br />
Bellona, A. (2011) Insuring Energy Independence. A CCS Roadmap for Poland. Available at: <a href="http://www.globalccsinstitute.com/publications/insuring-energy-independe... 16th September 2013]<br />
<br />
World Bank. Program Document for an Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Development Policy Loan for Poland. May 2011. Available at: <a href="http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2... 16th September 2013]<br />
<br />
EBRD. Renewable Energy Country Profile Poland. Available at: <a href="http://www.ebrdrenewables.com/sites/renew/Shared%20Documents/Country%20N... 16th September 2013]<br />
<br />
Global Wind Energy Council. Country Profile - Poland. Available at: <a href="http://dev6.semaforce.be/index.php?id=132">http://dev6.semaforce.be/inde... 16th September 2013]<br />
<br />
Energy Regulatory Office. Message from the President of the Energy Regulatory Authority. Available at: <a href="http://www.ure.gov.pl/en/communication/news/1,dok.html">http://www.ure.g... 16th September 2013]<br />
<br />
Radzka, B. (2006) Liberalisation, privatisation and regulation in the Polish electricity sector. Pique. Available at: <a href="http://www.pique.at/reports/pubs/PIQUE_CountryReports_Electricity_Poland... 16th September 2013]<br />