South Sudan (2012)

Degree of reliance on imported energy: 

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South Sudan is an oil producing country, able to export refined as well as crude petroleum products. Total petroleum exports in 2009, prior to independence, were 19,507 ktoe.</div>
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Pre-independence, in 2009, the country imported 1,164 ktoe of energy resources, solely refined petroleum products.</div>

Main sources of Energy: 

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Total installed electricity capacity (2011): 25 MW</div>
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Thermal: 100%</div>
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Total primary energy supply (2009): 15,815 ktoe (pre-independence)</div>
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Biomass: 67.9%</div>
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Crude Oil: 33.5%</div>
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Hydro: 1.8%</div>
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Oil Product Exports: -3.2%</div>
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As is the case with Sudan, the majority of the country&rsquo;s energy needs are met by indigenous biomass resources, predominantly due to the under-developed state of the nation&rsquo;s infrastructure following the prolonged civil conflict.&nbsp;</div>
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Oil plays a major role in the South Sudanese economy. In 2008, according to the IMF, oil represented 98% of total revenues for the country.</div>
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Country: 

South Sudan

Extent of the network: 

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Currently, the electricity network of South Sudan consists of three decentralised generation plants, each with a localised distribution network, serving the capital city of Juba and the state capitals of Malakau and Wau. Approximately 1% of the population had access to electricity services in 2011, the majority of these being in Juba.</div>

Capacity concerns: 

Currently, the country&rsquo;s entire generation capacity is based on thermal sources, predominantly diesel generators, which are notoriously expensive to operate and maintain. The expansion of electricity provision is a crucial factor in the ongoing development of South Sudan. Approximately 15,000 consumers currently have access to an electricity network.

Potential for Renewable Energy: 

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<strong>Solar energy</strong></div>
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Solar potentials in the South are approximately 6.9 GJ/m2/year, or 436 W/m2/year. The region receives on average, 8 hours of sunshine daily, making it ideally placed to utilise solar energy resources. The potential has been recognised for use in rural electrification, particularly solar electric lighting, through LEDs. Solar energy currently powers some radio stations in the country, and approximately 45,000 households have some form of energy service derived from solar resources.</div>
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<strong>Wind energy</strong></div>
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Wind power density in the Southern region ranges from 285 &ndash; 380 W/ m2. Wind power generation is seen as a key investment opportunity by the government of South Sudan, and some independent investors are making use of wind power for rural electrification.</div>
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<strong>Biomass energy</strong></div>
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Traditional biomass fuels provide for the vast majority of the South Sudanese population&rsquo;s energy needs. An estimated 71.1 million hectares of biomass resource exists in the country, of which 29.3 million cubic metres are deemed to be the allowable cut. Agricultural residues, as well as animal wastes, could also hold significant potential.</div>
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<strong>Geothermal energy</strong></div>
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The country is currently seeking assistance from the Kenyan Geothermal Development Company to undertake a thorough assessment of its geothermal resource. Due to its geographical location, geothermal resources are expected to be developed, and the GDC has expressed a keen interest in lending South Sudan technical assistance and co-operation in the development of this resource.</div>
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<strong>Hydropower</strong></div>
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Pre-independence, the total annual electricity production from Sudan&rsquo;s hydropower resources was estimated at 24,132 GWh. South Sudan holds the majority of the country&rsquo;s small-hydro potential, with an estimated 67,000 MWh being available annually. In 2010, the government of South Sudan announced its intention to build eleven new hydroelectric projects along the White Nile in the coming years.</div>
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Potential for Energy Efficiency: 

Prior to the country&rsquo;s division, measures were being taken to ensure that existing hydro facilities are protected from the extreme climate which results in silt build up, reducing their generation capacities. Pre-independence in 2009, primary energy supply per capita was 0.38 toe. As is the case in many developing nations with a large rural population, the residential sector consumes large amounts of fuel-wood, used for basic energy needs. Currently, the entirety of South Sudan&rsquo;s grid-connected electricity supply is based on diesel fuel. Although access to electricity is improving (three new power plants and localized distribution networks have been built in Juba, Malakal and Wau recently), the service is low.

Ownership: 

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<strong>Electricity market</strong></div>
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The GOSS established Southern Sudan Electricity Corporation (SSEC) as a subsidiary of the Ministry of Energy and Mining (MEM). The SSEC is responsible for the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electrical energy to consumers in Juba, Malakal and Wau. It currently has approximately 15,000 domestic customers, but no industrial or commercial consumers. The installed capacity of SSEC in Juba is about 17.5 MW, of which 6.5 MW is currently operational.</div>
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<strong>Liquid fuels market</strong></div>
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Nilepet is the government-owned and controlled company in the South Sudanese oil sector, and the sole national oil company.</div>
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Structure / extent of competition: 

The SSEC is currently operated as a vertically-integrated organisation. Aside from private diesel generators, there is no competition in the power sector. Nilepet recently signed joint venture agreements with Glencore International AG, forming Petronile International, which aims to develop the capacity of Nilepet, and market South Sudanese oil and petroleum products on the international market.

Existence of an energy framework and programmes to promote sustainable energy: 

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Currently, national energy policy primarily consists of oil sector policy, and the re-development of key petroleum resources and items of infrastructure. Oil production from South Sudan was shut down in the weeks leading to the end of January 2012, whilst administrative and technical factors were assessed, and investigations into alleged oil thefts and withholdings by the North were conducted. Petrodar, the consortium predominantly owned by the China National Petroleum Corporation which operates some of South Sudan&rsquo;s major export routes, reported that a lag period of 40 days to six months, depending on the duration of the shutdown, could be expected before production commenced again.</div>
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Programs to promote sustainable energy use and uptake are limited in the country presently, due to the country&rsquo;s infancy as an independent nation. The Ministry of Energy and Mining is, however, committed to the identification of all potential hydropower resources in the country, as well as other sustainable energy sources, and the facilitation of their use for power generation.</div>
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Current energy debates or legislation: 

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The 2005 peace agreement signed between the North and South stipulated that revenue from the South&rsquo;s oil production should be split equally with the Khartoum regime. This agreement expired upon secession; however, South Sudan is still dependent on the North&rsquo;s infrastructure for the export of its oil products, as the only major Sudanese export terminal lies on the Red Sea. Currently viable options for the South are seen to be the construction of new pipelines, either stretching to Ethiopia, to Kenya and the Indian Ocean, or South to Uganda. However, these will all require massive capital investment, and international interest has so far been limited.</div>
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Alleged oil thefts by international consortiums and the North have also been a fixture of the South Sudanese oil sector recently. Petrodar in particular has come under fire, accused of aiding and abetting the confiscation of 2.4 million barrels of the South&rsquo;s crude whilst en route to the Red Sea.</div>

Major energy studies: 

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South Sudan, as of September 2011, is a targeted member of the East African Power Pool (<a href="http://www.eappool.org/">http://www.eappool.org/</a>), a regional organisation created to promote integration of electricity networks, to improve energy security and increase energy access in all member states. Given the current state of South Sudan&rsquo;s electricity networks, it is likely that significant investment will be needed in order for the country to benefit from interconnections with neighbouring states.</div>

Role of government: 

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The Ministry of Energy and Mining (MEM) is the sole governmental ministry with responsibilities in the energy sector. The Ministry is responsible for formulating policies and strategies related to the management and development of the energy and mining sectors, as well as identifying both the conventional and renewable energy potentials of the country, planning and implementing electrical power schemes, overseeing the operation of the SSEC and regulating its performance, setting tariffs for electric power distribution, regulating the exploitation of minerals and fossil fuels, and co-ordinating with the national utility (Nilepet) on matters concerning oil and mineral exploration. The Directorates of Energy and Power Planning within the Ministry take specific responsibility for the energy and power sectors.</div>
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Government agencies in sustainable energy: 

Currently, no government agency is specifically considering sustainable energy in the country, save for the MEM.

Energy planning procedures: 

Energy planning in the country currently consists of the resolution of the numerous disputes in the oil and petroleum sector of the country, and the general establishment of an indigenous energy market. Initially announced as a joint venture between Khartoum&rsquo;s Eyat Oilfield Company and Nilepet, the Akon refinery project has had feasibility studies completed, however, investment has not yet been forthcoming. The refinery is set to have a 50,000 bbl/day capacity. Other projects contracted out by the MEM include the construction of medium-voltage grids for Thongpiny and Munuki, and feasibility studies for hydropower stations at Benden, Fula, Lakki and Shukilli. The MEM, in conjunction with the SSEC, is also constructing 6 MW of diesel-fired generating facilities. The plants will consist of 2x1 MW generators each, and will be constructed to supply Bor, Yambio and Rumbek.

Energy regulator Date of creation: 

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There is no dedicated energy regulator in the country. The MEM assumes the majority of the responsibilities of a regulator for the electricity and oil sectors.</div>

Degree of independence: 

The MEM is a government ministry, whose budget is entirely derived from the state.

Regulatory framework for sustainable energy: 

Currently, there is no dedicated framework for sustainable energy regulation in the country. The South Sudan Electricity Corporation Act, enacted in 2011, sets the responsibilities of the SSEC in the sector.

Regulatory roles: 

The MEM is responsible for the setting of tariffs for the sale of electricity to consumers, as well as overseeing the operations of the SSEC in the sector, to ensure the adequate performance of its functions, as per the stipulations of the Act. The MEM is also responsible for regulating the exploitation of mineral and petroleum resources, and for providing technical assistance and capacity-building services to state and local governments for energy and mineral matters.

Role of government department in energy regulation: 

No government department, other than the Ministry of Energy and Mines, takes an active role in energy regulation.

Regulatory barriers: 

Currently, the world&rsquo;s newest nation has not had a chance to implement a great deal of measures pertaining to the energy sector. Those developments that have been made have been for the country&rsquo;s most important resource, petroleum, and comparatively little consideration has been given to other aspects of the energy sector. Given time, and with sufficient support from the international community, the sustainable development of the country is a distinct possibility.

References: 

World Bank (2011) &quot;Electricity sector strategy note for South Sudan&quot;. Available at: http://www.devex.com/en/projects/electricity-sector-strategy-note-for-so... />
&nbsp;[Accessed 28 July 2013]<br />
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IEA Country Energy Statistics: <a href="http://www.iea.org/stats/countryresults.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=SD&amp;Submit=S... [Accessed 28 July 2013]<br />
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South Sudan-American Friendship and Trade Association: &quot;Geothermal&quot;. <a href="http://ssafta.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/Geothermal.doc">http://ssaf... [Accessed 28 July 2013]<br />
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Osman, A.A. (2010) &quot;Sudan facts and energy sector future prospects&quot;, 1st High-Level Meeting of the Africa-EU Energy Partnership, Vienna, Austria, 13-14 September 2010. Available at: <a href="http://www.aeep-conference.org/documents/presentations/aeep_presentation... [Accessed 28 July 2013]<br />
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Al Arabiya News: &quot;South Sudan: blackouts highlight slippery oil road ahead&quot;. <a href="http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/07/12/157245.html">http://www.ala... [Accessed 28 July 2013]<br />
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South Sudan Chamber of Commerce: &quot;Investment opportunities in South Sudan&quot;. <a href="http://southsudanchamber-commerce.org/index.php?option=com_k2&amp;view=i... [Accessed 28 July 2013]<br />
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Government of South Sudan: &quot;Infrastructure&quot;. <a href="http://www.goss-online.org/magnoliaPublic/en/Business-and-Industry/Infra... [Accessed 28 July 2013]<br />
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EIA (2011) &quot;Country analysis brief: South Sudan&quot;, Last Updated May 2012. Available at: <a href="http://205.254.135.7/countries/cab.cfm?fips=SU">http://205.254.135.7/cou... [Accessed 28 July 2013]<br />
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Government of South Sudan: &quot;Press Release 7th July 2011&quot;. <a href="http://www.goss-online.org/magnoliaPublic/en/news/press/mainColumnParagr... 28 July 2013]<br />
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Financial Times: &quot;South Sudan ponders new pipeline&quot;, 8th July 2011. <a href="http://blogs.ft.com/energy-source/2011/07/08/south-sudan-ponders-new-pip... [Accessed 28 July 2013]<br />
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Hurriyet Daily News: &quot;Malaysia&#39;s Petronas denies South Sudan oil theft claim&quot;, 5th March 2012. <a href="http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/malaysias-petronas-denies-south-sudan-o... [Accessed 28 July 2013]<br />
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Eastern African Power Pool: &quot;Members&quot;. <a href="http://www.eappool.org/eng/members.html">http://www.eappool.org/eng/memb... [Accessed 28 July 2013]<br />
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South Sudan Cartography: &quot;Ministries: Energy and Mining&quot;. <a href="http://sites.google.com/site/southernsudancartography/ministries/energy-... [Accessed 28 July 2013]<br />
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Sudan Tribune: &quot;South Sudan plans to build three oil refineries after secession: offical&quot;, 9th November 2010. <a href="http://www.sudantribune.com/South-Sudan-plans-to-build-three,36885">http... [Accessed 28 July 2013]<br />